An agreement between France and Austria. After the battles of Magenta and Solférino, Napoleon III and Franz Joseph met in Villafranca, where the Austrians agreed to a ceasefire. Austria ceded Lombardy to France, which then ceded it to Sardinia (Piémont), while retaining Veneto. The masters of the duchy of central Italy have been restored. Piedmont agreed and Cavour resigned. The Greek question, whose likely increase had led the only British government to send an agent to Congress, ordered Wellington to propose the ultimate need to recognize the belligerent rights of the Greeks and, in the event of concerted intervention, to ensure that Britain did not go beyond a supporting role. (See Greek War of Independence.) The instructions that Londonderry developed, as it was at the time, had been sent to Wellington by George Canning. They defined the British position on the three issues that needed to be discussed: the Turkish question (which currently appears in the Greek uprising), the question of intervention in favor of the bourbon royal power in Spain, and the Spanish colonies in America, insurrectionally undecided, and the Italian question. Count Cavour (1810-1861) Conte di, Italian statesman, who emigrated from the Access database; verified and replenished, AWT, 26-03-2014. When the plenipotentiaries met in Verona, only the Spanish question of the proposal for French intervention in Spain, where Wellington`s order was to express London`s uncompromising opposition to the whole principle of intervention, arose. Thus, Britain`s open break with the principles and policy of the Quintuple Alliance was proclaimed, as it had been with the accession of France in 1818, which gave Congress its main historical interest. The ensuing French intervention ended with the Battle of Trocadero, which Ferdinand VII reintroduced from Spain and ushered in a reactionary period of Spanish and European politics that led to the year of the revolutions of 1848. With regard to Russia and Austria, the immediate problems posed by the Greek question had already been the subject of private regulation between Emperor Alexander and Metternich at the preliminary conferences in Vienna in September.
The Quintuple Alliance was represented by the following people: A series of gilding and copper medals, The participants of the Congress, apparently beaten in England, present the participants of the Congress in less flattering lights: the “Chapter of Chateaubriand” (Ludwig Ernst Bramsen, Médallier) bears an inscription that sums up the British view of the French position: THE ROI OF FRANCE , while Emperor Francis I of Austria affirms MY OCCUPY TROOPS TO CHASTISE THE NEAPOLITANS FOR DARING TO CHANGE THEIR CONSTITUTION. From: Villafranca di Verona, Treaty in A Dictionary of World History ” While the representatives of Great Britain and the European powers were first widely concerted at the Vienna Congress, as the concord dissolved into the term “concert of Europe” in seven years, the way in which the three main issues were addressed before this congress manifested itself.
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